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2012年10月13日

為什麼沒有are? - 古德明

問:以下一句,willing之前為什麼沒有are?─He is fighting alongside his sons, all of them willing to die(他和兒子一起作戰,幾人都不惜一死)。
答:All of them willing to die是英文所謂分詞子句(participle clause)。
分詞子句可用現在分詞(present participle,即ing動詞)或過去分詞(past participle,即ed動詞);其主詞(subject)一般和主要子句(main clause)相同。這兩點,讀者應該都懂得,不必細說,僅舉一例:Willing to die / Prepared to die, he is fighting alongside his sons(=He is willing to die / He is prepared to die, and is fighting alongside his sons他不惜一死,和兒子一起作戰)。這一句willing和prepared的主詞是he。
但是,分詞子句也可以有獨立的主詞,例如:His chest bleeding / His chest wounded, he is still fighting alongside his sons(=His chest is bleeding / His chest is wounded, but he is still fighting alongside his sons他胸膛流血/他胸膛受傷,但仍然和兒子一起作戰)。這一句bleeding和wounded的主詞則是his chest,不是he。
讀者示下那一句,就是本身有主詞的分詞子句,等於He is fighting alongside his sons, and all of them are willing to die。改用過去分詞,則可說:He is fighting alongside his sons, all of them prepared to die。
【啟章先生】「孫行者,胡適之」一聯,為「平平仄,平仄平」,未完全符合「平平仄,仄仄平」格律,但對聯第一字一般可以通融。

古德明

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